900 Inventors and Inventions List A-Z

List of All inventors and their inventions. Find all the inventions throughout the world till date. This list of inventions and discoveries lists the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of ancient and modern world by nation and the inventors period.

Inventors And their Inventions


Vitaly Abalakov (1906–1986), Russia – camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor

Ernst Karl Abbe (1840–1905), Germany – Condenser (microscope), apochromatic lens, refractometer

Hovannes Adamian (1879–1932), USSR/Russia – tricolor principle of the color television

Samuel W. Alderson (1914–2005), USA – Crash test dummy

Alexandre Alexeieff (1901–1982) Russia/France – Pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)

Rostislav Alexeyev (1916–1980), Russia/USSR – Ekranoplan

Bruce Ames (born 1928), USA – Ames test (Cell biology)

Giovanni Battista Amici (1786–1863), Italy – Dipleidoscope, Amici prism

Mary Anderson (1866–1953), United States – windshield wiper blade

Momofuku Ando (1910–2007), Japan – Instant noodles

Hal Anger (1920–2005), USA – a.o. Well counter (radioactivity measurements), gamma camera

Anders Knutsson Ångström (1888–1981), Sweden – Pyranometer

Ottomar Anschütz (1846–1907), Germany – single-curtain focal-plane shutter, electrotachyscope

Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe (1872–1931), Germany – Gyrocompass

Virginia Apgar (1909–1974), USA – Apgar score (for newborn babies)

Nicolas Appert (1749–1841), France – canning (food preservation) using glass bottles, see also Peter Durand

Archimedes (c. 287–212 BC), Greece – Archimedes' screw

Guido of Arezzo (c. 991–c. 1033), Italy – Guidonian hand, musical notation, see also staff (music)

Ami Argand (1750–1803), France – Argand lamp

Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890–1954), USA – FM radio

William George Armstrong (1810–1900), UK – hydraulic accumulator

Neil Arnott (1788–1874), UK – waterbed

Joseph Aspdin (1788–1855), UK – Portland cement

John Vincent Atanasoff (1903–1995), Bulgaria/USA – modern digital computer


Charles Babbage (1791–1871), UK – Analytical engine (semi-automatic)

Victor Babeș (1854–1926) Romania – Babesia, the founder of serum therapy

Leo Baekeland (1863–1944), Belgian–American – Velox photographic paper and Bakelite

Ralph H. Baer (1922–2014), German born American – video game console

Adolf von Baeyer (1835–1917), Germany – a.o. Fluorescein, synthetic Indigo dye, Phenolphthalein

John Logie Baird (1888–1946), Scotland – an electromechanical television, electronic color television

Abi Bakr of Isfahan (c. 1235), Persia/Iran – mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar

George Ballas (1925–2011), USA – String trimmer

Vladimir Baranov-Rossine (1888–1944), Russia/France – Optophonic Piano

John Barber (1734–1801), UK – gas turbine

John Bardeen (1908–1991), USA – co-inventor of the transistor

Vladimir Barmin (1909–1993), Russia – first rocket launch complex (spaceport)

Anthony R. Barringer (1925–2009), Canada/USA – INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system

Earl W. Bascom (1906–1995), Canada/USA - modern rodeo bucking chute (1916 and 1919), rodeo bronc saddle (1922), rodeo bareback rigging (1924), modern rodeo riding chaps (1926)

Nikolay Basov (1922–2001), Russia – co-inventor of laser and maser

Émile Baudot (1845–1903), France – Baudot code

Eugen Baumann (1846–1896), Germany – PVC

Trevor Baylis (born 1937), UK – a wind-up radio

Francis Beaufort (1774–1857), Ireland/UK – Beaufort scale, Beaufort cipher

Arnold O. Beckman (1900–2004), USA – electric pH meter

Vladimir Bekhterev (1857–1927), Russia – Bekhterev's Mixture

Josip Belušić (1847–?), Croatia – electric speedometer

Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922), UK, Canada, and USA – telephone

Nikolay Benardos (1842–1905), Russian Empire – arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)

Ruth R. Benerito (1916–2013), USA – a.o. Permanent press (no-iron clothing)

Miriam Benjamin (1861–1947), Washington, D.C. – Gong and signal chair (adopted by House of Representatives and precursor to flight attendant signal system)

William R. Bennett, Jr. (1930–2008), together with Ali Javan (1926–), USA/Iran – Gas laser (Helium-Neon)

Melitta Bentz (1873–1950), Germany – paper Coffee filter

Karl Benz (1844–1929), Germany – the petrol-powered automobile

Hans Berger (1873–1941), Germany – first human EEG and its development

Friedrich Bergius (1884–1949), Germany – Bergius process (synthetic fuel from coal)

Emile Berliner (1851–1929), Germany and USA – the disc record gramophone

Tim Berners-Lee (born 1955), UK – with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web

Marcellin Berthelot (1827–1907), France – Berthelot's reagent (chemistry)

Max Bielschowsky (1869–1940), Germany – Bielschowsky stain (histology)

Alfred Binet (1857–1911), France – with his student Théodore Simon (1872–1961), first practical Intelligence test

Lucio Bini (1908–1964), together with Ugo Cerletti (1877–1963), Italy – Electroconvulsive therapy

Gerd Binnig (born 1947), with Christoph Gerber, Calvin Quate and Heinrich Rohrer, Germany/Switzerland/USA – Atomic force microscope and Scanning tunneling microscope

Clarence Birdseye (1886–1956), USA – Flash freezing

Laszlo Biro (1899–1985), Hungary – modern ballpoint pen

Thor Bjørklund (1889–1975), Norway – Cheese slicer

J. Stuart Blackton (1875–1941), USA – stop-motion film

Otto Blathy (1860–1939), Hungary – co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator

John Blenkinsop (1783–1831), UK – Blenkinsop rack railway system

Charles K. Bliss (1897–1985), Austro-Hungary/Australia – Blissymbols

Katharine B. Blodgett (1898–1979), UK – nonreflective glass

Alan Blumlein (1903–1942), UK – stereo

David Boggs (born 1950), USA – Ethernet

Nils Bohlin (1920–2002), Sweden – the three-point seat belt

Charlie Booth (1903–2008), Australia – Starting blocks

Sam Born (1891–1959), Russia/USA – lollipop-making machine

Jagdish Chandra Bose (1858–1937), India – Crescograph

Matthew Piers Watt Boulton (1820–1894), UK – aileron

Seth Boyden (1788–1870), USA – nail-making machine

Herbert Boyer (born 1936), together with Paul Berg (1926–), and Stanley Norman Cohen (1935–), USA – created first Genetically modified organism

Willard Boyle (1924–2011), together with George E. Smith (1930–), USA – Charge-coupled device (CCD)

Hugh Bradner (1915–2008), USA – Wetsuit

Louis Braille (1809–1852), France – Braille writing system, Braille musical notation

Jacques E. Brandenberger (1872–1954), Switzerland – Cellophane

Édouard Branly (1844–1940), France – Coherer

Charles F. Brannock (1903–1992), USA – Brannock Device (shoe size)

Walter Houser Brattain (1902–1987), USA – co-inventor of the transistor

Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850–1918), Germany – cathode-ray tube oscilloscope

Stanislav Brebera (1925–2012), Czech Republic – Semtex explosive

David Brewster (1781–1868), United Kingdom – Kaleidoscope

Rachel Fuller Brown (1898–1980), USA – Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic

William C. Brown (1916–1999), USA – Crossed-field amplifier

Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Bruhn (1853–1927), Germany – Taximeter

Nikolay Brusentsov (1925–2014), USSR, Russia – ternary computer (Setun)

Dudley Allen Buck (1927–1959), USA – a.o. Cryotron, content-addressable memory

Edwin Beard Budding (1795–1846), UK – lawnmower

Gersh Budker (1918–1977), Russia – electron cooling, co-inventor of collider

Robert Bunsen (1811–1899), Germany – Bunsen burner

Henry Burden (1791–1871) Scotland and USA – Horseshoe machine, first usable iron railed road spike


Robert Cailliau (born 1947), Belgium – with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web

Nicholas Callan (1799–1864), Ireland – a.o. Induction coil

Tullio Campagnolo (1901–1983), Italy – Quick release skewer

Charles Cantor (born 1942), USA – Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (molecular biology)

Mario Ramberg Capecchi (born 1937), together with Sir Martin John Evans (born 1941), and Oliver Smithies (born 1925), USA – Gene targeting

Arturo Caprotti (1881–1938), Italy – Caprotti valve gear

Gerolamo Cardano (1501–1576), Italy – a.o. Cardan grille (cryptography)

Chester Carlson (1906–1968), USA – Xerographic copier

Wallace Carothers (1896–1937), USA – Nylon and Neoprene (together with Arnold Collins)

Antonio Benedetto Carpano (1764–1815), Italy – modern vermouth

Giovanni Caselli (1815–1891), Italy/France – Pantelegraph

George Cayley (1773–1857), UK – tension-spoke wheels

Anders Celsius (1701–1744), Sweden – Celsius temperature scale

Vint Cerf (born 1943), together with Bob Kahn (1938–), USA – Internet Protocol (IP)

Ugo Cerletti (1877–1963), together with Lucio Bini (1908–1964), Italy – Electroconvulsive therapy

Charles Chamberland (1851–1908), France – Chamberland filter

Min Chueh Chang (1908–1991), together with Gregory Goodwin Pincus (1903–1967), USA/China – Combined oral contraceptive pill

Thomas Chang (born 1933), Canada/China – Artificial cell

Emmett Chapman (born 1936), US – Chapman Stick

Claude Chappe (1763–1805), France – Semaphore line

David Chaum (born 1955), USA – a.o. Digital signatures, ecash

Vladimir Chelomey (1914–1984), USSR– first space station (Salyut)

Pavel Cherenkov (1904–1990), USSR – Cherenkov detector

Evgeniy Chertovsky (born 1902), Russia – pressure suit

Ward Christensen (born 1945), USA – Bulletin board system

Ole Kirk Christiansen (1891–1958), Denmark – creator of Lego

Samuel Hunter Christie (1784–1865), UK – Wheatstone bridge

Juan de la Cierva (1895–1936), Spain – the autogyro

Leland Clark (1918–2005), USA – Clark electrode (medicine)

Georges Claude (1870–1960), France – neon lamp

Henri Marie Coandă (1886–1972), Romania – Coandă effect

Josephine Cochrane (1839–1913), USA – dishwasher

Christopher Cockerell (1910–1999), UK – Hovercraft

Aeneas Coffey (1780–1852), Ireland – Coffey still

Sir Henry Cole (1808–1882), UK – Christmas card

Samuel Colt (1814–1862), USA – Revolver development

George Constantinescu (1881–1965), Romania – creator of the theory of sonics, a new branch of continuum mechanics

Albert Coons (1912–1978), USA – Immunofluorescence (microscopy)

Martin Cooper (born 1928), USA

Harry Coover (1917–2011), USA – Super Glue

Lloyd Groff Copeman (1865–1956), USA – Electric stove

Cornelis Corneliszoon (1550–1607), The Netherlands – wind powered sawmill

Alexander Coucoulas (born 1933), USA – Thermosonic bonding

Wallace H. Coulter (1913–1998), USA – Coulter principle

Jacques Cousteau (1910–1997), France – co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera

John "Jack" Higson Cover, Jr. (1920–2009), USA – Taser

William Crookes (1832–1919), UK – Crookes radiometer, Crookes tube

Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731), Italy – piano

S. Scott Crump (inv. c. 1989), USA – a.o. Fused deposition modeling

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (1725–1804), France – first steam-powered road vehicle

William Cullen (1710–1790), UK – first artificial refrigerator

Jan Czochralski (1885–1953), Poland / Germany – Czochralski process (crystal growth)


Nils Gustaf Dalén (1869–1937), Sweden – AGA cooker, Dalén light, Agamassan, Sun valve for lighthouses and buoys

John Frederic Daniell (1790–1845), United Kingdom – Daniel cell

Corradino D'Ascanio (1891–1981), Italy – Vespa scooter

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Italy – helicopter, tank, parachute

Jacob Davis (1868–1908), USA – Riveted jeans

Humphry Davy (1778–1829), UK – Davy miners lamp

Joseph Day (1855–1946), UK – the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine

Lee DeForest (1873–1961), USA – Phonofilm, triode

Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk (1927–2006), Russia – 3D holography

Robert H. Dennard (born 1932), USA– Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM)

Miksa Deri (1854–1938), Hungary – co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer

James Dewar (1842–1923), UK – Thermos flask

Aleksandr Dianin (1851–1918), Russia – Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound

William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (1860–1935), UK – motion picture camera

Philip Diehl (1847–1913), USA – Ceiling fan

Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913), Germany – Diesel engine

William H. Dobelle (1943–2004), United States – Dobelle Eye

Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780–1849), Germany – Döbereiner's lamp (chemistry)

Toshitada Doi (born 1943), Japan, together with Joop Sinjou, Netherlands – Compact disc

Ray Dolby (1933–2013), USA – Dolby noise-reduction system

Gene Dolgoff (inv. c. 1985), USA – LCD projector

Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (1862–1919), Poland/Russia – three-phase electric power

Marion O'Brien Donovan (1917–1998), USA – Waterproof diaper

Hub van Doorne (1900–1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission

John Thompson Dorrance (1873–1930), USA – Condensed soup

Amanda Minnie Douglas (1831–1916), writer and inventor (portable folding mosquito net frame)

Charles Dow (1851–1902), USA – Dow Jones Industrial Average

Mulalo Doyoyo (born 1970), South Africa/USA – Cenocell – cementless concrete

Anastase Dragomir (1896–1966), Romania – Ejection seat

Karl Drais (1785–1851), Germany – dandy horse, Draisine

Richard Drew (1899–1980), USA – Masking tape

John Boyd Dunlop (1840–1921), UK – first practical pneumatic tyre

Cyril Duquet (1841–1922), Canada – Telephone handset

Alexey Dushkin (1904–1977), Russia – deep column station

James Dyson (born 1947), UK – Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.


George Eastman (1854–1932), USA – roll film

J. Presper Eckert (1919–1995), USA – ENIAC – the first general purpose programmable digital computer

Thomas Alva Edison (1847–1931), USA – phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc.

Pehr Victor Edman (1916–1977), Sweden – Edman degradation for Protein sequencing

Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards (1925–2013), United Kingdom – In vitro fertilisation

Ellen Eglin (1849–c. 1890), USA – Clothes wringer

Brendan Eich (born 1961), USA – JavaScript (programming language)

Willem Einthoven (1860–1927), The Netherlands – the electrocardiogram

Benjamin Eisenstadt (1906–1996), USA – a.o. Sugar packet

Paul Eisler (1907–1992), Austria/USA – Printed circuit board (electronics)

Giorgi Eliava (1892–1937), together with Félix d'Herelle (1873–1949), France / Georgia – Phage therapy

Ivan Elmanov, Russia – first monorail (horse-drawn)

Rune Elmqvist (1906–1996), Sweden – implantable pacemaker

John Haven Emerson (1906–1997), USA – iron lung

Douglas Engelbart (1925–2013), USA – the computer mouse

John Ericsson (1803–1889), Sweden – the two screw-propeller

Lars Magnus Ericsson (1846–1926), Sweden – the handheld micro telephone[1]

Emil Erlenmeyer (1825–1909), Germany – Erlenmeyer flask

Sir Martin John Evans (born 1941), together with Mario Ramberg Capecchi (born 1937), and Oliver Smithies (1925–2017), USA – Knockout mouse, Gene targeting

Ole Evinrude (1877–1934), Norway – outboard motor


Charles Fabry (1867–1945), together with Alfred Perot (1863–1925), France – Fabry–Pérot interferometer (physics)

Samuel Face (1923–2001), USA – concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch

Federico Faggin (born 1941), Italy – microprocessor

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), The Netherlands – Fahrenheit temperature scale, Mercury-in-glass thermometer

Michael Faraday (1791–1867), UK – electric transformer, electric motor

Johann Maria Farina (1685–1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne

Myra Juliet Farrell (1878–1957), Australia – stitchless button, Press stud

Philo Farnsworth (1906–1971), USA – a.o. electronic television

Muhammad al-Fazari (d. 796/806), Persia – astrolabe

John Bennett Fenn (1917–2010), USA – Electrospray ionization

Henry John Horstman Fenton (1854–1929), UK – Fenton's reagent (chemistry)

James Fergason (1934–2008), USA – improved liquid crystal display

Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), Italy – nuclear reactor

Humberto Fernández Morán (1924–1999), Venezuela – Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome

Michele Ferrero (1925–2015), Italy – Kinder Surprise = Kinder Eggs, Nutella

Reginald Fessenden (1866–1932), Canada – two-way radio

Robert Feulgen (1884–1955), Germany – Feulgen stain (histology)

Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick (1829–1901), Germany – contact lens

Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman) (810–887), Al-Andalus – artificial wings, fused quartz and silica glass, metronome

Artur Fischer (1919–2016) Germany – fasteners including fischertechnik.

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (1877–1947), together with Hans Schrader (1921–2012), Germany – Fischer assay (oil yield test)

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (1877–1947), together with Hans Tropsch (1889–1935), Germany – Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process)

Gerhard Fischer (1899–1988), Germany/USA – hand-held metal detector

Paul C. Fisher (1913–2006), USA – Space Pen

Alexander Fleming (1881–1955), Scotland – penicillin

John Ambrose Fleming (1848–1945), UK – vacuum diode

Sandford Fleming (1827–1915), Canada – Universal Standard Time

Nicolas Florine (1891–1972), Georgia/Russia/Belgium – first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely

Tommy Flowers (1905–1998), UK – Colossus an early electronic computer.

Thomas J. Fogarty (born 1934), USA – Embolectomy catheter (medicine)

Enrico Forlanini (1848–1930), Italy – Steam helicopter, hydrofoil, Forlanini airships

Eric Fossum (born 1957), USA – intra-pixel charge transfer in CMOS image sensors

Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (1819–1868), France – Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current

Benoît Fourneyron (1802–1867), France – water turbine

John Fowler (1826–1864), UK – steam-driven ploughing engine

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), USA – the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica

Herman Frasch (1851–1914), Germany / USA – Frasch process (petrochemistry), Paraffin wax purification

Ian Hector Frazer (born 1953), together with Jian Zhou (1957–1999), USA/China – HPV vaccine against cervical cancer

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788–1827), France – Fresnel lens

William Friese-Greene (1855–1921), UK – cinematography

Julius Fromm (1883–1945), Germany – first seamless Condom

Arthur Fry (born 1931), USA – Post-it note

Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983), USA – geodesic dome

Robert Fulton (1765–1815), United States – first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine

Ivan Fyodorov (c. 1510–1583), Russia/Poland–Lithuania – invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia

Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1927–2000), Russia – radial keratotomy

Vladimir Fyodorov (1874–1966), Russia – Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)


Dennis Gabor (1900–1979), Hungarian-British – holography

Boris Borisovich Galitzine (1862–1916), Russia – electromagnetic seismograph

Joseph G. Gall (born 1928), USA – In situ hybridization (cell biology)

Alfred William Gallagher (1911–1990), New Zealand – Electric fence for farmers

Dmitri Garbuzov (1940–2006), Russia/USA – continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers

Elmer R. Gates (1859–1923), USA – foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")*

Richard J. Gatling (1818–1903), USA – wheat drill, first successful machine gun

Georgy Gause (1910–1986), Russia – gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics

E. K. Gauzen, Russia – three bolt equipment (early diving costume)

Norman Gaylord (1923–2007), USA – rigid gas-permeable contact lens

Karl-Hermann Geib (1908–1949), Germany / USSR – Girdler sulfide process

Hans Wilhelm Geiger (1882–1945), Germany – Geiger counter

Andrey Geim (born 1958), Russia/United Kingdom – graphene

Nestor Genko (1839–1904), Russia – Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)

Christoph Gerber (?–), with Calvin Quate (1923–), and with Gerd Binnig (1947–), Germany/USA/Switzerland – Atomic force microscope

Friedrich Clemens Gerke (1801–1888), Germany – current international Morse code

David Gestetner (1854–1939), Austria-Hungary / UK – a.o. Gestetner copier

Alberto Gianni (1891–1930), Italy – Torretta butoscopica

John Heysham Gibbon (1903–1973), USA – Heart-lung machine

Gustav Giemsa (1867–1948), Germany – Giemsa stain (histology)

Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen (1903–1992), Austria – Giesl ejector

Henri Giffard (1825–1882), France – powered airship, injector

Donald A. Glaser (1926–2013), USA – Bubble chamber

C. W. Fuller (inv. 1953), USA – Gilhoolie

Valentyn Glushko (1908–1989), Russia – hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)

Heinrich Göbel (1818–1893), Germany – incandescent lamp

Leonid Gobyato (1875–1915), Russia – first modern man-portable mortar

Robert Goddard (1882–1945), USA – liquid fuel rocket

Sam Golden (1915–1997), together with Leonard Bocour (1910–1993), USA – Acrylic paint

Peter Carl Goldmark (1906–1977), Hungary – vinyl record (LP), CBS color television

Camillo Golgi (1843–1926), Italy – Golgi's method (histology)

György Gömöri (1904–1957), Hungary / USA– Gömöri trichrome stain, Gömöri methenamine silver stain (histology)

Charles Goodyear (1800–1860), USA – vulcanization of rubber

Robert W. Gore (born 1937), United States – Gore-Tex

Igor Gorynin (1926–2015), Russia – weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels

James Gosling (born 1955), USA – Java (programming language)

Gordon Gould (1920–2005), USA – Laser, see also Theodore Maiman

Richard Hall Gower (1768–1833), UK – ship's hull and rigging

Boris Grabovsky (1901–1966), Russia – cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube

Bette Nesmith Graham (1924–1980), USA – Correction fluid, Liquid Paper

Hans Christian Gram (1853–1938), Denmark / Germany – Gram staining (histology)

Zénobe Gramme (1826–1901), Belgium/France – Gramme dynamo

Temple Grandin (born 1947), Inventor of the squeeze machine and humane abattoirs.

Michael Grätzel (born 1944), Germany/Switzerland– a.o. Dye-sensitized solar cell

James Henry Greathead (1844–1896), South Africa – tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique

Chester Greenwood (1858–1937), USA – thermal earmuffs

James Gregory (1638–1675), Scotland – Gregorian telescope

Charles Leiper Grigg (1868–1940), USA – 7 Up

William Robert Grove (1811–1896), Wales – fuel cell

Gustav Guanella (1909–1982), Switzerland – DSSS, Guanella-Balun

Otto von Guericke (1602–1686), Germany – vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter

Mikhail Gurevich (1893–1976), Russia – MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)

Goldsworthy Gurney (1793–1875), England – Gurney Stove

Bartolomeu de Gusmão (1685–1724), Brazil – early air balloons

Johann Gutenberg (c. 1398–1468), Germany – movable type printing press

Samuel Guthrie (physician) (1782–1848), USA – discovered chloroform


Fritz Haber (1868–1934), Germany – Haber process (ammonia synthesis)

John Hadley (1682–1744), UK – Octant

Waldemar Haffkine (1860–1930), Russia/Switzerland – first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines

Gunther von Hagens (born 1945), Germany – whole body Plastination

Charles Hall (1863–1914), USA – aluminum production

Robert N. Hall (born 1919), USA – a.o. Semiconductor laser

Tracy Hall (1919–2008), USA – synthetic diamond

Richard Hamming (1915–1998), USA – Hamming code

John Hays Hammond, Jr. (1888–1965), USA – radio control

Ruth Handler (1916–2002), USA – Barbie doll

James Hargreaves (1720–1778), UK – spinning jenny

John Harington (1561–1612), UK – the flush toilet

William Snow Harris (1791–1867), United Kingdom – much improved naval Lightning rods

John Harrison (1693–1776), UK – marine chronometer

Ross Granville Harrison (1870–1959), USA – first successful animal Tissue culture, Cell culture

Kazuo Hashimoto (died 1995), Japan – a.o. Caller-ID, answering machine

Victor Hasselblad (1906–1978), Sweden – invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1039), Iraq – camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass

Zheng He (1371–1433), China – Chinese treasure ship

George H. Heilmeier (born 1936), USA – liquid crystal display (LCD)

Henry Heimlich (1920–2016), USA – Heimlich maneuver

Robert A. Heinlein (1907–1988), USA – waterbed

Jozef Karol Hell (1713–1789), Slovakia – the water pillar

Rudolf Hell (1901–2002), Germany – the Hellschreiber

Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894), Germany – Helmholtz pitch notation, Helmholtz resonator, ophthalmoscope

Greg Henderson (inventor) (born 1965), California, USA – hoverboard, Magnetic field architecture, SAFE Building System

Zhang Heng (78–139), China – Seismometer, first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere

Charles H. Henry (born 1937), USA – Quantum well laser

Joseph Henry (1797–1878), Scotland/USA – electromagnetic relay

Félix d'Herelle (1873–1949), together with Giorgi Eliava (1892–1937), France / Georgia – Phage therapy

Heron (c. 10–70), Roman Egypt – usually credited with invention of the aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier

John Herschel (1792–1871), UK – photographic fixer (hypo), actinometer

Harry Houdini (1874-1926) USA Flight Time Illusion

Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894), Germany – radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation

Ephraim Hertzano (around 1950), Roumania / Israel – Rummikub

Lasse Hessel (born 1940), Denmark – Female condom

George de Hevesy (1885–1966), Hungary – radioactive tracer

Ronald Price Hickman (1932–2011), USA – designed the original Lotus Elan, the Lotus Elan +2 and the Lotus Europa, as well as the Black & Decker Workmate

Rowland Hill (1795–1879), UK – postage stamp

Maurice Hilleman (1919–2005) – vaccines against childhood diseases

Tanaka Hisashige (1799–1881), Japan – Myriad year clock

Ted Hoff (born 1937), USA – microprocessor

Felix Hoffmann (Bayer) (1868–1949), Germany – Aspirin

Albert Hofmann (1906–2008), Switzerland – LSD

Kotaro Honda (1870–1954), Japan – KS steel

Huang Hongjia (born 1924), China – Single-mode optical fiber.

Herman Hollerith (1860–1929), USA – recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards

Nick Holonyak (born 1928), USA – LED (Light Emitting Diode)

Norman Holter (1914–1983), USA – Holter monitor

Robert Hooke (1635–1703), UK – balance wheel, iris diaphragm, acoustic telephone

Erna Schneider Hoover (born 1926), USA – computerized telephone switching system

Grace Murray Hopper (1906–1992), USA – Compiler

Frank Hornby (1863–1936), UK – invented Meccano

Jimmy Hotz (born 1953), USA – Hotz MIDI Translator, Atari Hotz Box

Royal Earl House (1814–1895), USA – first Printing telegraph

Coenraad Johannes van Houten (1801–1887), Netherlands – cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk

Elias Howe (1819–1867), USA – sewing machine

David Edward Hughes (1831–1900), UK

Chuck Hull (born 1939), USA – 3D printer

Miller Reese Hutchison (1876–1944), USA – a.o. Klaxon, electric hearing aid

Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695), Netherlands – pendulum clock

John Wesley Hyatt (1837–1920), USA – celluloid manufacturing.


Gavriil Ilizarov (1921–1992), Russia – Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis

Mamoru Imura (born 1948), Japan – RFIQin (automatic cooking device)

Daisuke Inoue (born 1940), Japan – Karaoke machine

János Irinyi (1817–1895), Hungary – noiseless match

Ub Iwerks (1901–1971), U. S. – Multiplane camera for animation


Moritz von Jacobi (1801–1874), Germany/Russia – electrotyping, electric boat

Rudolf Jaenisch (born 1942), Germany/USA – first Genetically modified mouse

Karl Guthe Jansky (1905–1950), USA – radio telescope

Karl Jatho (1873–1933), Germany – aeroplane

Ali Javan (1926–2016), together with William R. Bennett, Jr. (1930–2008), Iran/USA – Gas laser (Helium-Neon)

Al-Jazari (1136–1206), Iraq – crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage

Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar) (895–979), Tunisia – sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs

Ányos Jedlik (1800–1898), Hungary – Jedlik dynamo

Alec John Jeffreys (born 1950), United Kingdom – DNA profiling (forensics)

Charles Francis Jenkins (1867–1934) – television and movie projector (Phantoscope)

Steve Jobs (1955–2011), USA – Apple Macintosh computer, iPod, iPhone, iPad and other devices and software operating systems and applications.

Amos Edward Joel, Jr. (1918–2008) USA – electrical engineer, known for several contributions and over seventy patents related to telecommunications switching systems

Carl Edvard Johansson (1864–1943), Sweden – Gauge blocks

Johan Petter Johansson (1853–1943), Sweden – the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner

Reynold B. Johnson (1906–1998), USA – Hard disk drive

Philipp von Jolly (1809–1884), Germany – Jolly balance

Scott A. Jones (born 1960), USA – created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine

Tom Parry Jones (1935–2013), United Kingdom – first electronic Breathalyzer

Assen Jordanoff (1896–1967), Bulgaria – airbag

Anatol Josepho (1894–1980), patented the first coin-operated photo booth called the "Photomaton" in 1925.

Marjorie Joyner (1896–1994), USA – Permanent wave machine

Whitcomb Judson (1836–1909), USA – zipper

Percy Lavon Julian (1899–1975), USA – chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants

Ma Jun (fl. 220–265), China – south-pointing chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms


Mikhail Kalashnikov (1919–2013), Russia – AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)[2]

Bob Kahn (born 1938), together with Vint Cerf (born 1943), USA – Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Dawon Kahng (1931–1992), South Korea, together with Simon Sze (born 1936), Taiwan/USA – Floating-gate MOSFET

Dean Kamen (born 1951), USA – Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853–1926), Netherlands – liquid helium

Nikolay Kamov (1902–1973), Russia – armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters

Pyotr Kapitsa (1894–1984), Russia – first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions

Georgii Karpechenko (1899–1941), Russia – rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)

Jamshīd al-Kāshī (c. 1380–1429), Persia/Iran – plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer

Yevgeny Kaspersky (born 1965), Russia – Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products

Andrew Kay (1919–2014), USA – Digital voltmeter

Adolphe Kégresse (1879–1943), France/Russia – Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission

Carl D. Keith (1920–2008), together with John J. Mooney (c. 1928–), USA – three way catalytic converter

Mstislav Keldysh (1911–1978), Latvia/Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov

John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943), cornflake breakfasts

John G. Kemeny (1926–1992), together with Thomas E. Kurtz (born 1928), Hungary/USA – BASIC (programming language)

Alexander Kemurdzhian (1921–2003), Russia – first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)

William Saville-Kent (1845–1908), UK/Australia – Pearl culture, see also Mikimoto Kōkichi

Kerim Kerimov (1917–2003), Azerbaijan and Russia – co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station

Charles F. Kettering (1876–1958), USA – invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more

Fazlur Khan (1929–1982), Bangladesh – structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers

Yulii Khariton (1904–1996), Russia – chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb

Anatoly Kharlampiev (1906–1979), Russia – Sambo (martial art)

Al-Khazini (fl.1115–1130), Persia/Iran – hydrostatic balance

Konstantin Khrenov (1894–1984), Russia – underwater welding

Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi (c. 940–1000), Persia/Iran – astronomical sextant

Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi) (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran – modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square

Marcel Kiepach (1894-1915), Croatia – dynamo, maritime compass that indicates north regardless of the presence of iron or magnetic forces

Erhard Kietz (1909–1982), Germany & USA. – signal improvements for video transmissions

Jack Kilby (1923–2005), USA – patented the first integrated circuit

Al-Kindi (Alkindus) (801–873), Iraq/Yemen – ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis

Petrus Jacobus Kipp (1808–1864), The Netherlands – Kipp's apparatus (chemistry)

Steve Kirsch (born 1956), USA – Optical mouse

Fritz Klatte (1880–1934), Germany – vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride

Yves Klein (1928–1962), France – International Klein Blue

Margaret E. Knight (1838–1914), USA – machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags

Tom Knight (? – ), USA – BioBricks (synthetic biology)

Ivan Knunyants (1906–1990), Armenia/Russia – capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6

Robert Koch (1843–1910), Germany – method for culturing bacteria on solid media

Willem Johan Kolff (1911–2009), Netherlands – artificial kidney hemodialysis machine

Rudolf Kompfner (1909–1977), USA – Traveling-wave tube

Konstantin Konstantinov (1817 or 1819–1871), Russia – device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine

Sergey Korolyov (1907–1966), USSR – first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)

Nikolai Korotkov (1874–1920), Russian empire – auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement

Semen Korsakov (1787–1853), Russian Empire – punched card for information storage

Mikhail Koshkin (1898–1940), Russia – T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II

Ognjeslav Kostović (1851–1916), Serbia/Russia – arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)

Gleb Kotelnikov (1872–1944), Russia – knapsack parachute, drogue parachute

William Justin Kroll (1889–1973), Luxemburg/USA – Kroll process

Alexei Krylov (1863–1945), Russia – gyroscopic damping of ships

Ivan Kulibin (1735–1818), Russia – egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph

Shen Kuo (1031–1095), China – improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube

Igor Kurchatov (1903–1960), Russia – first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships

Thomas E. Kurtz (born 1928), together with John G. Kemeny (1926–1992), USA/Hungary – BASIC (programming language)

Raymond Kurzweil (born 1948), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner

Ken Kutaragi (born 1950), Japan – PlayStation

Stephanie Kwolek (1923–2014), USA – Kevlar

John Howard Kyan (1774–1850), Ireland – The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation


Dmitry Lachinov (1842–1902), Russia – mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, electrolyser

René Laennec (1781–1826), France – stethoscope

Georges Lakhovsky (1869–1942), Russia/USA – Multiple Wave Oscillator

Hedy Lamarr (1913–2000), Austria and USA – Spread spectrum radio

Edwin H. Land (1909–1991), USA – Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera

Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906), USA – bolometer

Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (1847-1923), Russia - incandescent lamp

Irving Langmuir (1851–1957), USA – gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding

Norm Larsen (1923–1970), USA – a.o. WD-40

Lewis Latimer (1848–1928), USA – Invented the modern day light bulb

Gustav de Laval (1845–1913), Sweden – invented the milk separator and the milking machine

Semyon Lavochkin (1900–1960), Russia – La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut

John Bennet Lawes (1814–1900), UK – superphosphate or chemical fertilizer

Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901–1958), USA – Cyclotron

Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia – Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history

Sergei Lebedev (1874–1934), Russia – commercially viable synthetic rubber

William Lee (1563–1614), UK – Stocking frame knitting machine

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), The Netherlands – development of the microscope

Jerome H. Lemelson (1923–1997), USA – Inventions in the fields in which he patented make possible, wholly or in part, innovations like automated warehouses, industrial robots, cordless telephones, fax machines, videocassette recorders, camcorders, and the magnetic tape drive used in Sony's Walkman tape players.

Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822–1900), Belgium – internal combustion engine, motorboat

Giacomo da Lentini (13th Century), Italy – Sonnet

R. G. LeTourneau (1888–1969), USA – electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers

Rasmus Lerdorf (born 1968), Greenland/Canada – PHP (programming language)

Willard Frank Libby (1908–1980), USA – radiocarbon dating

Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), Germany – nitrogen-based fertilizer

Hon Lik (born 1951), Chinese. electronic cigarette

Otto Lilienthal (1848–1896), Germany – hang glider

Lin Yutang (1895–1976), China/USA – Chinese language typewriter

Charles Lindbergh (1902–1974), USA – organ perfusion pump

Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist (1862–1931), Sweden – Kerosene stove operated by compressed air

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), Sweden – formal Binomial nomenclature for living organisms, Horologium Florae

Hans Lippershey (1570–1619), The Netherlands – telescope

Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (1845–1921), France – Lippmann plate, Integral imaging, Lippmann electrometer

Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan Fyodorovich and Nazar Fyodorovich, Russia – samovar (the first documented makers)

William Howard Livens (1889–1964), UK – chemical warfare – Livens Projector

Eduard Locher (1840–1910), Switzerland – Locher rack railway system

Alexander Lodygin (1847–1923), Russia – electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), Russia – night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt

Yury Lomonosov (1876–1952), Russia/United Kingdom – first successful mainline diesel locomotive

Aleksandr Loran (1849 – after 1911), Russia – fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher

Oleg Losev (1903–1942), Russia – light-emitting diode, crystadine

Antoine Louis (1723–1792), France – Guillotine

Archibald Low (1882–1956), Britain – Pioneer of radio guidance systems

Ed Lowe (1920–1995), USA – Cat litter

Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy (1909–2001), Russia – Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project

Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822–1882), Poland – modern kerosene lamp

Auguste and Louis Lumière (1862–1954 and 1864–1948, resp.), France – Cinématographe

Cai Lun, 蔡倫 (50–121 AD), China – paper

Giovanni Luppis or Ivan Vukić (1813–1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Croatian, from Rijeka) – self-propelled torpedo

Richard F. Lyon (born 1952), USA – Optical mouse

Arkhip Lyulka (1908–1984), Russia – first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines


Charles Macintosh (1766–1843), Scotland – waterproof raincoat, life vest

Theodore Maiman (1927–2007), USA – Laser, see also Gordon Gould

Ahmed Majan (born 1963), UAE – instrumented racehorse saddle and others

Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany – Orbitrap mass spectrometer

Stepan Makarov (1849–1904), Russia – Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice

Victor Makeev (1924–1985), Russia – first submarine-launched ballistic missile

Nestor Makhno (1888–1934), Ukraine/Russia – tachanka

Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov (1896–1964), Russia – Maksutov telescope

Annie Malone (1869–1957), USA – Cosmetics for African American women

Sergey Malyutin (1859–1937), Russia – designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)

Al-Ma'mun (786–833), Iraq – singing bird automata, terrestrial globe

Boris Mamyrin (1919–2007), Russia – reflectron (ion mirror)

George William Manby (1765–1854), UK – Fire extinguisher

Joy Mangano (born 1956), USA – household appliances

Charles Mantoux (1877–1947), France – Mantoux test (tuberculosis)

Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), Italy – radio telegraphy

Gheorghe Marinescu (1863–1938), Romania – the first science films in the world in the neurology clinic in Bucharest (1898–1901)

Sylvester Marsh (1803–1884), USA – Marsh rack railway system

Konosuke Matsushita (1894–1989), Japan – a.o. battery-powered Bicycle lighting

Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf (1526–1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey – steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant

John Landis Mason (1826–1902), USA – Mason jars

Fujio Masuoka (born 1943), Japan – Flash memory

John W. Mauchly (1907–1980), USA – ENIAC – the first general purpose programmable digital computer

Henry Maudslay (1771–1831), UK – screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer

Hiram Maxim (1840–1916), USA born, UK – First self-powered machine gun

James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) and Thomas Sutton, Scotland – color photography

Stanley Mazor (born 1941), USA – microprocessor

John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836), Scotland – improved "macadam" road surface

Elijah McCoy (1843–1929), Canada – Displacement lubricator

Nicholas McKay, Sr. (1920–2014), USA – Lint roller

James McLurkin (born 1972), USA – Ant robotics (robotics)

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845–1916), Russia – probiotics

Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès (1817–1880), France – margarine

Mordecai Meirowitz (born c. 1925), Roumania / Israel – Mastermind (board game)

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907), Russia – Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion

George de Mestral (1907–1990), Switzerland – Velcro

Robert Metcalfe (born 1946), USA – Ethernet

Antonio Meucci (1808–1889), Italy/USA – a.o. various early telephones, a hygrometer, a milk test

Édouard Michelin (1859–1940), France – pneumatic tire

Anthony Michell (1870–1959), Australia – tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine

Artem Mikoyan (1905–1970), Armenia/Russia – MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)

Alexander Mikulin (1895–1985), Russia – Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank

Mikhail Mil (1909–1970), Russia – Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)

David L. Mills (born 1938), USA – a.o. Fuzzball router, Network Time Protocol

Marvin Minsky (1927–2016), USA – a.o. Confocal microscopy

Tokushichi Mishima (1893–1975), Japan – MKM magnetic steel

C. Mohan (born 1955), USA - ARIES (Computer science)

Pavel Molchanov (1893–1941), Russia – radiosonde

Jules Montenier (1895–1962), USA – modern anti-perspirant deodorant

Montgolfier brothers (1740–1810) and (1745–1799), France – hot air balloon

John J. Montgomery (1858–1911), USA – heavier-than-air gliders

Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol (1819–1885), Spain – steam powered submarine

Robert Moog (1934–2005), USA – the Moog synthesizer

John J. Mooney (born 1929), together with Carl D. Keith (1920–2008), USA – three way catalytic converter

Roland Moreno (1945–2012), France – inventor of the smart card

Samuel Morey (1762–1843), USA – internal combustion engine

Garrett A. Morgan (1877–1963), USA – inventor of the smoke hood

Alexander Morozov (1904–1979), Russia – T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34

Walter Frederick Morrison (1920–2010), USA – Flying disc

William Morrison (dentist) (1860–1926), USA – a.o. Cotton candy machine

Samuel Morse (1791–1872), USA – early Morse code, see also Morse Code controversy

Sergei Ivanovich Mosin (1849–1902), Russia – Mosin–Nagant rifle

Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s–1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?–1750), Russia – Tsar Bell

Vera Mukhina (1889–1953), Russia – welded sculpture

Kary Mullis (born 1944), USA – PCR

Fe del Mundo (1911–2011), The Philippines – medical incubator made out of bamboo for use in rural communities without electrical power

Colin Murdoch (1929–2008), New Zealand – a.o. Tranquillizer gun, disposable hypodermic syringe

William Murdoch (1754–1839), Scotland – Gas lighting

Jozef Murgas (1864–1929), Slovakia – inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)

Evgeny Murzin (1914–1970), Russia – ANS synthesizer

Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800–873), Ahmad (803–873), Al-Hasan (810–873), Iraq – mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine

Elon Musk (born 1971)

Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692–1761), Netherlands – Leyden jar, pyrometer

Walton Musser (1909–1998), USA – Harmonic drive gear

Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), UK – motion picture


Georgi Nadjakov (1896–1981), Bulgaria – wikt:photoelectret

Alexander Nadiradze (1914–1987), Georgia/Russia – first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)

Nagai Nagayoshi (1844–1929), Japan – Methamphetamine

James Naismith (1861–1939), Canadian born, USA – invented basketball and American football helmet

Yoshiro Nakamatsu (born 1928), Japan – "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter

Shuji Nakamura (born 1954), Japan – Blue laser

John Napier (1550–1617), Scotland – logarithms

Andrey Nartov (1683–1756), Russia – first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge–boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight

James Nasmyth (1808–1890), Scotland – steam hammer

Giulio Natta (1903–1979), together with Karl Ziegler (1898–1973), Italy/Germany – Ziegler–Natta catalyst

Nebuchadrezzar II (634–562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw, screwpump

Erwin Neher (born 1944), together with Bert Sakmann (1942–), Germany – Patch clamp technique

Ted Nelson (born 1937), USA – Hypertext, Hypermedia

Sergey Nepobedimiy (1921–2014), Russia – first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry

Karl Nessler (1872–1951), Germany/USA – a.o. Permanent wave machine, artificial eyebrows

John von Neumann (1903–1957), Hungary – Von Neumann computer architecture

Isaac Newton (1642–1727), UK – reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)

Miguel Nicolelis (born 1961), Brazil – Brain-machine interfaces

Joseph Nicephore Niépce (1765–1833), France – photography

Nikolai Nikitin (1907–1973), Russia – prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)

Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940), Germany – Nipkow disk

Jun-Ichi Nishizawa (born 1926), Japan – Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode

Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), Sweden – dynamite

Ludvig Nobel (1831–1888), Sweden/Russia – first successful oil tanker

Emmy Noether (1882–1935), Germany, groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics; Noether's Theorem

Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770), France – Electroscope

Wilhelm Normann (1870–1939), Germany – Hydrogenation of fats

Carl Richard Nyberg (1858–1939), Sweden – the blowtorch


Aaron D. O'Connell (born 1981), USA – first Quantum machine

Theophil Wilgodt Odhner (1845–1903), Sweden/Russia – the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator

Paul Offit (born 1951), United States, along with Fred Clark and Stanley Plotkin, invented a pentavalent Rotavirus vaccine

Jarkko Oikarinen (born 1967), Finland – Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Katsuhiko Okamoto (?–), Japan – Okamoto Cubes = modifications of Rubik's Cube

Ransom Eli Olds (1864–1950), United States – Assembly line

Lucien Olivier (1838–1883), Belgium or France / Russia – Russian salad (Olivier salad)

Gerard K. O'Neill (1927–1992), USA – Storage ring (physics)

J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967), United States – Atomic bomb

Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II (1858–1923) American – weapon sights & mining

Hans Christian Ørsted (1777–1851), Denmark – electromagnetism, aluminium

Elisha Otis (1811–1861), USA – safety system for elevators

William Oughtred (1575–1660), UK – slide rule


Arogyaswami Paulraj (born 1944), India/USA – MIMO

Antonio Pacinotti (1841–1912), Italy – Pacinotti dynamo

Larry Page (born 1973), USA – with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine

William Painter (1838–1906), UK/USA – a.o. Crown cork, Bottle opener

Alexey Pajitnov (born 1956), Russia/USA – Tetris

Julio Palmaz (born 1945), Argentina – balloon-expandable, stent

Helge Palmcrantz (1842–1880), Sweden – the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun

Daniel David Palmer (1845–1913), Canada – chiropractic

Luigi Palmieri (1807–1896), Italy – seismometer

Frank Pantridge (1916–2004), Ireland – Portable defibrillator

Georgios Papanikolaou (1883–1962), Greece / USA – Papanicolaou stain, Pap test = Pap smear

Philip M. Parker (born 1960), USA – computer automated book authoring

Alexander Parkes (1831–1890), UK – celluloid

Forrest Parry (1921–2005), USA – Magnetic stripe card

Charles Algernon Parsons (1854–1931), British – steam turbine

Spede Pasanen (1930–2001), Finland – a.o. ski jumping sling, boat ski

Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), France – Pascal's calculator

Gustaf Erik Pasch (1788–1862), Sweden – safety match

Dimitar Paskov (1914–1986), Bulgaria – Galantamine

C. Kumar N. Patel (born 1938), India/USA – Carbon dioxide laser

Les Paul (1915–2009), USA – multitrack recording

Andreas Pavel (born 1945), Brazil – audio devices

Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), Russia, – classical conditioning

Floyd Paxton (1918–1975), USA – a.o. Bread clip

John Pemberton (1831–1888), USA – Coca-Cola

Slavoljub Eduard Penkala (1871–1922), Croatia – mechanical pencil

William Henry Perkin (1838–1907), United Kingdom – first synthetic organic chemical dye Mauveine

Henry Perky (1843–1906), USA – shredded wheat

Alfred Perot (1863–1925), together with Charles Fabry (1867–1945), France – Fabry–Pérot interferometer (physics)

Stephen Perry, UK (fl. 19th century) – rubber band

Aurel Persu (1890–1977), Romania – first aerodynamic car, aluminum body with wheels included under the body, 1922

Vladimir Petlyakov (1891–1942), Russia – heavy bomber

Julius Richard Petri (1852–1921), Germany – Petri dish

Peter Petroff (1919–2004), Bulgaria – digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments

Fritz Pfleumer (1881–1945), Germany – magnetic tape

Auguste Piccard (1884–1962), Switzerland – Bathyscaphe

Gregory Goodwin Pincus (1903–1967), together with Min Chueh Chang (1908–1991), USA/China – Combined oral contraceptive pill

Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (1810–1881), Russia – early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations

Fyodor Pirotsky (1845–1898), Russia – electric tram

Arthur Pitney (1871–1933), United States – postage meter

Hippolyte Pixii (1808–1835), France – Pixii dynamo

Joseph Plateau (1801–1883), Belgium – phenakistiscope (stroboscope)

Baltzar von Platen (1898–1984), Sweden – gas absorption refrigerator

James Leonard Plimpton (1828–1911), USA – roller skates

Ivan Plotnikov (1902–1995), Russia – kirza leather

Roy Plunkett (1910–1994), United States – Teflon

Petrache Poenaru (1799–1875), Romania – fountain pen

Christopher Polhem (1661–1751), Sweden – the modern padlock

Nikolai Polikarpov (1892–1944), Russia – Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)

Eugene Polley (1915–2012), United States – wireless remote control (with Robert Adler)

Ivan Polzunov (1728–1766), Russia – first two-cylinder steam engine

Mikhail Pomortsev (1851–1916), Russia – nephoscope

Olivia Poole (1889–1975), USA, – the Jolly Jumper baby harness

Alexander Popov (1859–1906), Russia – radio pioneer, created a radio receiver that worked as a lightning detector

Nikolay Popov (1931–2008), Russia – first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)

Josef Popper (1838-1921), Austria- discovered the transmission of power by electricity.

Aleksandr Porokhovschikov (1892–1941), Russia – Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)

Ignazio Porro (1801–1875), Italy – Porro prism, Strip camera

Valdemar Poulsen (1869–1942), Denmark – magnetic wire recorder, arc converter

Joseph Priestley (1733–1804), UK – soda water

Alexander Procofieff de Seversky (1894–1974), Russia/United States of America – first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also developed air-to-air refueling

Alexander Prokhorov (1916–2002), Russia – co-inventor of laser and maser

Petro Prokopovych (1775–1850), Russian Empire – early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties

Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky (1863–1944), Russia/France – early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures

Mark Publicover (born 1958), USA – First affordable trampoline safety net enclosure

George Pullman (1831–1897), USA – Pullman sleep wagon

Michael I. Pupin (1858–1935), Serbia – pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator

Tivadar Puskas (1844–1893), Hungary – telephone exchange


Calvin Quate (1923–), with Gerd Binnig (1947–), and with Christoph Gerber (?–), USA/Germany/Switzerland – Atomic force microscope

Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874), France/Belgium – Body mass index (BMI)


Jacob Rabinow (1910–1999), USA – a.o. Magnetic particle clutch, various Phonograph-related patents

John Goffe Rand (1801–1873), USA – Tube (container)

Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865–965), Persia/Iran – distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide

Alec Reeves (1902–1971), UK – Pulse-code modulation

Karl von Reichenbach (1788–1869), Germany – paraffin, creosote oil, phenol

Tadeus Reichstein (1897–1996), Poland/Switzerland – Reichstein process (industrial vitamin C synthesis)

Ira Remsen (1846–1927), USA – saccharin

Ralf Reski (born 1958), Germany – Moss bioreactor 1998

Josef Ressel (1793–1857), Czechoslovakia – ship propeller

Ri Sung-gi (1905–1996), North Korea – Vinylon

Charles Francis Richter (1900–1985), USA – Richter magnitude scale

Adolph Rickenbacker (1886–1976), Switzerland – Electric guitar

Hyman George Rickover (1900–1986), USA – Nuclear submarine

Niklaus Riggenbach (1817–1899), Switzerland – Riggenbach rack railway system, Counter-pressure brake

Dennis Ritchie (1941–2011), USA – C (programming language)

Gilles de Roberval (1602–1675), France – Roberval balance

John Roebuck (1718–1794) UK – lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis

Francis Rogallo (1912–2009), USA – Rogallo wing

Heinrich Rohrer (1933–2013), together with Gerd Binnig (1947–), Switzerland/Germany – Scanning tunneling microscope

Peter I the Great (Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov), Tsar and Emperor of Russia (1672–1725), Russia – decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), Germany – the X-ray machine

Ida Rosenthal (1886–1973), Belarus/Russia/United States – modern bra (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)

Sidney Rosenthal (1907–1979), USA – Magic Marker

Eugene Roshal (born 1972), Russia – FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver

Boris Rosing (1869–1933), Russia – CRT television (first television system using CRT on the receiving side)

Guido van Rossum (born 1956), The Netherlands – Python (programming language)

Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier (1754–1785), France – Rozière balloon

Ernő Rubik (born 1944), Hungary – Rubik's Cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock

Ernst Ruska (1906–1988), Germany – electron microscope


Albert Bruce Sabin (1906–1993), USA – oral Polio vaccine

Alexander Sablukov (1783–1857), Russia – centrifugal fan

Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu (1385–1468), Turkey – illustrated surgical atlas

Gilles Saint-Hilaire (born 1948), Canada – Quasiturbine, Qurbine

Andrei Sakharov (1921–1989), Russia – invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak

Jonas Edward Salk (1914–1995), USA – injection Polio vaccine

Franz San Galli (1824–1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) – radiator, modern central heating

Frederick Sanger (1918–2013), USA – Sanger sequencing (= DNA sequencing)

Larry Sanger (born 1968), together with Jimmy Wales, USA – Wikipedia

Yoshiyuki Sankai (c. 1957–), Japan – Robotic exoskeleton for motion support (medicine)

Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873–1932), Brazil – non-rigid airship and airplane

Arthur William Savage (1857–1938) – radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle

Thomas Savery (1650–1715), UK – steam engine

Adolphe Sax (1814–1894), Belgium – saxophone

Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906–1993), USA – a.o. Cloud seeding by dry ice

Bela Schick (1877–1967), Hungary – diphtheria test

Hugo Schiff (1834–1915), Germany – Schiff test (histology)

Pavel Schilling (1786–1837), Estonia/Russia – first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse

Gilmore Schjeldahl (1912–2002), USA – Airsickness bag

Hubert Schlafly (1919–2011), USA – Teleprompter = Autocue

Wilhelm Schlenk (1879–1943), Germany – Schlenk flask (chemistry)

Bernhard Schmidt (1879–1935), Estonia/Germany – Schmidt camera

Otto Schmitt (1913–1998), USA – Schmitt trigger (electronics)

Christian Schnabel (1878–1936), German – simplistic food cutleries

Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (born 1946), Netherlands – Major contributor to development of Compact Disc

August Schrader (1807–1894), USA – Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire

David Schwarz (1852–1897), Croatia, – rigid ship, later called Zeppelin

Raymond Scott (1908–1994), USA — inventor and developer of electronic music technology

Marc Seguin (1786–1875), France – wire-cable suspension bridge

Hanaoka Seishū (1760–1835), Japan – General anaesthetic

Ted Selker (inv. 1987), USA – Pointing stick

Sennacherib (705–681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) – screw pump

Léon Serpollet (1858–1907), France – Flash boiler, Gardner-Serpollet steam car

Iwan Serrurier (1878–1953), Netherlands/USA – inventor of the Moviola for film editing

Mark Serrurier (1904–1988), USA – Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes

Gerhard Sessler (born 1931), Germany – foil electret microphone, silicon microphone

Guy Severin (1926–2008), Russia – extra-vehicular activity supporting system

Ed Seymour (inv. c. 1949), USA – Aerosol paint

Leonty Shamshurenkov (1687–1758), Russia – first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge

Ibn al-Shatir (1304–1375), Syria – "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial

Bi Sheng (Chinese: 畢昇) (c. 990–1051), China – clay movable type printing

Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973–1025), Japan – psychological novel

Pyotr Shilovsky (1871–1957), Russia/United Kingdom – gyrocar

Masatoshi Shima (born 1943), Japan – microprocessor

Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), Mughal India – early volley gun

Joseph Shivers (1920–2014), USA – Spandex

William Bradford Shockley (1910–1989), USA – co-inventor of transistor

Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), UK – Shrapnel shell ammunition

Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939), Russia – thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot

Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor (born 1972), Malaysia – cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space

Augustus Siebe (1788–1872), Germany/UK – Inventor of the standard diving dress

Sir William Siemens (1823–1883), Germany – regenerative furnace

Werner von Siemens (1816–1892), Germany – a.o. electric elevator, Electromote (= first trolleybus), an early Dynamo

Al-Sijzi (c. 945–1020), Persia/Iran – heliocentric astrolabe

Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972), Russia/USA – first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters

Bernard Silver (1924–1963), together with Norman Joseph Woodland (1921–2012), USA – Barcode

Kia Silverbrook (born 1958), Australia – Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor

Vladimir Simonov (born 1935), Russia – APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol

Charles Simonyi (born 1948), Hungary – Hungarian notation

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037), Persia/Iran – steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker

Isaac Singer (1811–1875), USA – sewing machine

B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), USA – Operant conditioning chamber

Nikolay Slavyanov (1854–1897), Russia – shielded metal arc welding

Alexander Smakula (1900–1983), Ukraine/Russia/USA – anti-reflective coating

Michael Smith (1932–2000), USA – Site-directed mutagenesis (molecular biology)

Oliver Smithies (1925–2017), together with Sir Martin John Evans (born 1941), and Mario Ramberg Capecchi (born 1937), USA – Knockout mouse, Gene targeting

Yefim Smolin, Russia – table-glass (stakan granyonyi)

Friedrich Soennecken (1848–1919), Germany – Ring binder, Hole punch

Su Song (1020–1101), China – first chain drive

Marin Soljačić (born 1974), Croatia – Resonant inductive coupling

Edwin Southern (born 1938), USA – Southern blot (molecular biology)

Alfred P. Southwick (1826–1898), USA – Electric chair

Igor Spassky (born 1926), Russia – Sea Launch platform

Percy Spencer (1894–1970), USA – microwave oven

Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860–1930), USA – gyroscope-guided automatic pilot

Lyman Spitzer (1914–1997), USA – Stellarator (physics)

Bhargav Sri Prakash (born 1977), India/USA – Learnification platform at FriendsLearn, Virtual Reality System, electromagnetic collision avoidance system, OBD based in-vehicle powertrain performance measurement, rate based driver controls for drive by wire systems

Ladislas Starevich (1882–1965), Russia/France – puppet animation, live-action/animated film

Gary Starkweather (born 1938), USA – laser printer, color management

Boris Stechkin (1891–1969), Russia – co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines

George Stephenson (1781–1848), UK – steam railway

Simon Stevin (1548–1620), Netherlands – land yacht

Andreas Stihl (1896–1973), Switzerland/Germany – Electric chain saw

Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790–1878), Scotland – Stirling engine

Aurel Stodola (1859–1942), Slovakia – gas turbines

Aleksandr Stoletov (1839–1896), Russia – first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect

Levi Strauss (1829–1902), USA – blue jeans

John Stringfellow (1799–1883), UK – aerial steam carriage

Bjarne Stroustrup (born 1950), Denmark – C++ (programming language)

Almon Strowger (1839–1902), USA – automatic telephone exchange

Emil Strub (1858–1909), Switzerland – Strub rack railway system

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) (903–986), Persia/Iran – timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe

Kyota Sugimoto (1882–1972), Japan – Japanese language typewriter

Mutsuo Sugiura (1918–1986), Japan – Esophagogastroduodenoscope

Pavel Sukhoi (1895–1975), Russia – Su-series fighter aircraft

Simon Sunatori (born 1959), Canada – inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer

Sushruta (600 BC), Vedic India – inventor of Plastic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty

Theodor Svedberg (1884–1971), Sweden – Analytical ultracentrifuge

Joseph Swan (1828–1914), UK – Incandescent light bulb

Robert Swanson (1905–1994), Canada – Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives

Remi Swierczek (born 1958), Poland – Inventor of Music Identification System and the Mico Changer (coin hopper and dispenser used in casinos)

Andrei Sychra (c.1773/76–1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent – Russian seven-string guitar

Vladimir Syromyatnikov (1933–2006), Russia – Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms

Simon Sze (born 1936), Taiwan/USA, together with Dawon Kahng (1931–1992), South Korea – Floating-gate MOSFET

Leó Szilárd (1898–1964), Hungary/USA – Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project


Muhammad Salih Tahtawi (fl.1659–1660), Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe

Gyula Takátsy (1914–1980), Hungary – first Microtiter plate

Esther Takeuchi (born 1953) – holds more than 150 US-patents, the largest number for any woman in the United States

Igor Tamm (1895–1971), Russia – co-developer of tokamak

Ching W. Tang (born 1947), Hong Kong/USA, together with Steven Van Slyke, USA – OLED

Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi (c. 1187), Middle East – counterweight trebuchet, mangonel

Gustav Tauschek (1899–1945), Austria – Drum memory

Kenyon Taylor (inv. 1961), USA – Flip-disc display

Bernard Tellegen (1900–1990), Netherlands – pentode

Edward Teller (1908–2003), Hungary – hydrogen bomb

Eli Terry (1772–1852)

Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), Croatia/Serbia – induction motor, high-voltage / high-frequency power experiments, the transmission of electrical power

Léon Theremin (1896–1993), Russia – theremin, interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (1785–1870), France – Arithmometer

Elihu Thomson (1853–1937), UK, USA – Prolific inventor, Arc lamp and many others

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), United Kingdom – Kelvin absolute temperature scale

Eric Tigerstedt (1887–1925), Finland – Sound-on-film, triode vacuum tube

Kalman Tihanyi (1897–1947), Hungary – co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope

Mikhail Tikhonravov (1900–1974), Russia – co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks

Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov (1875–1960), Russia – feathering spectrograph

Benjamin Chew Tilghman (1821–1897), USA – sandblasting

Fedor Tokarev (1871–1968), Russia – TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle

Ray Tomlinson (inv. 1971), USA – First inter-computer email

Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647), Italy – barometer

Alfred Traeger (1895–1980), Australia – Pedal radio

Richard Trevithick (1771–1833), UK – high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive

Franc Trkman (1903–1978), Slovenia – electrical switches, accessories for opening windows

Hans Tropsch (1889–1935), together with Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (1877–1947), Germany – Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process)

Yuri Trutnev (born 1927), Russia – co-developer of the Tsar Bomb

Roger Y. Tsien (1952–2016), together with Osamu Shimomura (born 1928) and Martin Chalfie (born 1947), USA – Discovery and development of Green fluorescent protein

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), Russia – spaceflight

Mikhail Tsvet (1872–1919), Russia – chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)

Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001), Russia – the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)

Andrei Tupolev (1888–1972), Russia – turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)

Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201–1274), Persia/Iran – observatory, Tusi-couple

Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1135–1213), Persia/Iran – linear astrolabe


Shintaro Uda (1869–1976), together with Hidetsugu Yagi (1886–1976), Japan – Yagi-Uda antenna

Lewis Urry (1927–2004), Canada – long-lasting alkaline battery

Tomislav Uzelac, Croatia – first successful MP3 player, AMP


Ira Van Gieson (1866–1913), USA – Van Gieson's stain (histology)

Theophilus Van Kannel (1841–1919), United States – revolving door (1888)

Vladimir Veksler (1907–1966), Russia – synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron

John Venn (1834–1923), UK – Venn diagram (1881)

Auguste Victor Louis Verneuil (1856–1913), France – Verneuil process (crystal growth)

Pierre Vernier (1580–1637), France – Vernier scale (1631)

Lucien Vidi (1805–1866), France – Barograph

Edgar Villchur (1917–2011), USA – a.o. Acoustic suspension (loudspeaker)

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (1895–1973), Finland – a.o. AIV fodder

Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), Italy – battery, see also Voltaic pile

Bernard Vonnegut (1914–1997), together with Henry Chessin, and Richard E. Passarelli, Jr., USA – a.o. Cloud seeding by silver iodide

Ivan Vučetić (1858–1925), Croatia – Method of fingerprint classification


Paul Walden (1863–1957), Latvia/Russia/Germany – Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)

Jimmy Wales (born 1966), together with Larry Sanger, USA – Wikipedia

Madam C.J. Walker (1867–1919), USA – beauty and hair products for African American women

Barnes Wallis (1887–1979), UK – bouncing bomb

Frederick Walton (c. 1834–1928), UK – Linoleum

Aldred Scott Warthin (1866–1931), together with Allen Chronister Starry (1890–1973), USA – Warthin–Starry stain (histology)

Robert Watson-Watt (1892–1973), Scotland – microwave radar

James Watt (1736–1819), Scotland – improved Steam engine

Thomas Wedgwood (1771–1805), UK – first (not permanent) photograph

Carl Auer von Welsbach (1858–1929), Austria – Gas mantle, ferrocerium

Jonas Wenström (1855–1893), Sweden – three-phase electrical power

George Westinghouse (1846–1914), USA – Air brake (rail)

Charles Wheatstone (1802–1875), UK – a.o. concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher, pseudoscope, dynamo

Richard T. Whitcomb (1921–2009), USA – Supercritical airfoil, Winglet

Eli Whitney (1765–1825), USA – the cotton gin

Frank Whittle (1907–1996), UK – co-inventor of the jet engine

Otto Wichterle (1913–1989), Czechoslovakia – soft contact lens

Norman Wilkinson (1878–1971), UK – Dazzle camouflage

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869–1959), UK – Cloud chamber

Paul Winchell (1922–2005), USA – the artificial heart

Sergei Winogradsky (1856–1953), Russia / USSR – Winogradsky column for culturing microorganisms

Niklaus Wirth (born 1934), Switzerland – Pascal (programming language)

A. Baldwin Wood (1879–1956), USA – high volume pump

Norman Joseph Woodland (1921–2012), together with Bernard Silver (1924–1963), USA – Barcode

Granville Woods (1856–1910), USA – the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph

James Homer Wright (1869–1928), USA – Wright's stain (histology)

Wright brothers, Orville (1871–1948) and Wilbur (1867–1912) – USA – powered airplane

Arthur Wynne (1862–1945), UK – creator of crossword puzzle


Yi Xing (683–727), China – astronomical clock


Pavel Yablochkov (1847–1894), Russia – Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)

Hidetsugu Yagi (1886–1976), together with Shintaro Uda (1896–1976), Japan – Yagi-Uda antenna

Alexander Yakovlev (1906–1989), Russia – Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)

Linus Yale, Jr. (1821–1868), USA – cylinder lock

Linus Yale, Sr. (1797–1858), USA Penetomas – pin tumbler lock

Shunpei Yamazaki (born 1942), Japan – patents in a.o. computer science and solid-state physics, see List of prolific inventors

Gazi Yasargil (born 1925), Turkey – Microneurosurgery

Ryōichi Yazu (1878–1908), Japan – Yazu Arithmometer

Gunpei Yokoi (1941–1997), Japan – Game Boy

Arthur M. Young (1905–1995), USA – the Bell Helicopter

Vladimir Yourkevitch (1885–1964), Russia/France/USA – modern ship hull design

Tu Youyou (born 1930), China – Artemisinin

Sergei Yudin (1891–1954), Russia – cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations

Muhammad Yunus (born 1940), Bangladesh – microcredit, microfinance

Abu Yusuf Yaqub (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain – siege cannon

Abraham Albert Yuzpe (inv. c. 1974), USA – Yuzpe regimen (= form of Emergency contraception)


Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936–1013), Islamic Spain – catgut surgical suture, various surgical instruments and dental devices

Frank Zamboni (1901–1988), USA – Ice resurfacer

Giuseppe Zamboni (1776–1846), Italy – Zamboni pile (early battery)

Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof (1859–1917), Russia/Poland – Esperanto

Walter Zapp (1905–2003), Latvia/Estonia/Germany – Minox (subminiature camera)

Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) (1028–1087), Islamic Spain – almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe

Yevgeny Zavoisky (1907–1976), Russia – EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy

Nikolay Zelinsky (1861–1953), Russia – the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world

Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838–1917), Germany – Zeppelin

Frits Zernike (1888–1966), The Netherlands – Phase contrast microscope

Tang Zhongming (1897–1980), China – internal combustion engine powered by charcoal

Jian Zhou (1957–1999), together with Ian Hector Frazer (1953–), China/USA – HPV vaccine against cervical cancer

Nikolai Zhukovsky (1847–1921), Russia – an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank

Karl Ziegler (1898–1973), together with Giulio Natta (1903–1979), Germany/Italy – Ziegler–Natta catalyst

Franz Ziehl (1857–1926), together with Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898), Germany – Ziehl–Neelsen stain (histology)

Konrad Zuse (1910–1995), Germany – invented the first programmable general-purpose computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)

Vasily Zvyozdochkin (1876–1956), Russia – matryoshka doll (together with Sergey Malyutin)

Vladimir Zworykin (1889–1982), Russia/USA – Iconoscope, kinescope.